के हो राज्यराष्ट्र सिद्धान्त ?

राज्यराष्ट्र (State Nation) निम्नानुसारका मान्यताहरु समेटिएको एक सिद्धान्त हो :—
(क) राज्य (State) नै राष्ट्र (Nation) हो ।
(ख) राज्य र राष्ट्र अलग अलग तत्त्वहरु होइनन् । “राज्य” र “राष्ट्र” समान अर्थ दिने संज्ञाहरू हुन् — जसमा “राज्य” संज्ञामा भू–राजनीतिक–वैधानिकतालाई र “राष्ट्र” संज्ञामा सांस्कृतिक सामाजिक एकत्वलाई जोड दिइएको हुन्छ ।
(ग) “राष्ट्रियता” को परिभाषा एवं पहिचानका निमित्त “राज्य” नै निर्णायक तत्त्व हो । प्रजाति, जाति, भाषा, धार्मिक सम्प्रदाय, सांस्कृतिक पहिचान, क्षेत्रीय पहिचान आदिका आधारमा “राष्ट्र” को परिभाषा गर्नु हुँदैन र जुन राज्यको नागरिक होइन्छ, सोही राज्यको नागरिकतासँगै राष्ट्रियता पनि निर्धारण हुन्छ ।
(घ) “राज्यराष्ट्र” मा नागरिक तथा राजनीतिक अधिकार र सांस्कृतिक अधिकारलाई तिनीहरुका विशिष्ट परिप्रेक्ष्यमा विशिष्टतापूर्वक प्रत्याभूत गरिन्छ । प्रजातीय, जातीय, साम्प्रदायिक, सामुदायिक, क्षेत्रीय आदि पहिचानहरु सांस्कृतिक अधिकारका विषय–वस्तु हुन् भने नागरिकता एवं राष्ट्रियताचाहिँ नागरिक तथा राजनीतिक अधिकारका विषय–वस्तु हुन् । अर्थात्, नागरिक तथा राजनीतिक अधिकारका निमित्त व्यक्ति नै आधारभूत एकाइ हो र सांस्कृतिक अधिकारका निमित्त देशका प्रजातीय, जातीय, साम्प्रदायिक, सामुदायिक, क्षेत्रीय आदि पहिचानहरुका आधारमा बनेका अवयवहरुलाई एकाइ मानिन्छ । तसर्थ, नागरिक तथा राजनीतिक अधिकारका परिप्रेक्ष्यमा प्रजाति, जाति, सम्प्रदाय, समुदाय, भौगोलिकक्षेत्र आदिबाट अभिनिर्मित पहिचानको निर्णायक भूमिका हुँदैन; तर सांस्कृतिक अधिकारका परिप्रेक्ष्यमाचाहिँ राज्य संस्कृति, प्रजाति, जाति, सम्प्रदाय, समुदाय, भौगोलिकक्षेत्र आदिबाट निरपेक्ष रहन सक्दैन ।
“राष्ट्रियता” को परिभाषा एवं पहिचानका निमित्त “राज्य” नै निर्णायक तत्त्व मान्ने हाम्रो मान्यता भएकाले नाक चुच्चो छ कि थेप्चो (नेप्टो) छ, आँखा विस्फारित (खुलेको) छ कि चिम्सो छ, रङ्ग गोरो छ कि कालो छ, कपाल कस्तो छ, जुँगा–दाह्री छपक्कै बाक्लो आउँछ कि कताकति तिलचामले मात्र आउँछ, हिमाली भेगको हो वा पहाडी भेगको हो वा तराइ मधेश भेगको हो, कुन जातिको हो, कुन प्रजातिको हो, कुन जातको हो — यस्ता यस्ता निहुँमा मान्छेको कित्ताकाट गर्ने/ध्रुवीकरण हुने घृणावादी राजनीतिका दृष्टिकोणबाट “राष्ट्र” को परिभाषा गर्ने पद्धतिलाई हामी अस्वीकार गर्छौँ । सोही कारणले नै हामी राष्ट्रराज्य (Nation State), द्वि–राष्ट्रिय राज्य (Two-Nation State) तथा बहुराष्ट्रिय राज्य (Plurinational State or Multi-Nation State) भन्ने सिद्धान्तलाई पनि मान्दैनौँ । नेपाल एक राज्यराष्ट्र (State Nation) हो भन्ने हाम्रो मान्यता छ ।

An Invitation to the State Nation Theory:
The root cause of the problems in the context of Baluchistan, Kurdistan, Palestine-Israel, Jammu-Kashmir, and so on, is due to a faulty notion of “Nation State” and its extensions namely “Two-Nation Theory” and “Pluri-nationalism” (or “Multi-nation State Theory”).
The theory of “Nation State” and its extensions played significant role in the European history while Europeans were defining Statehood and translating that into practice. But, those theories have become outdated and irrelevant even in the European context. All of the ‘Nation State’, ‘Two-Nation Theory’ and ‘Pluri-nationalism’ have a common view of considering race and/or ethnicity as the primary basis to define a “Nation” and, from their perspective, every such “Nation” shall get its own “State”. Contrary to European theory and practice, the creation of the State in our part of the world has not been on the basis of race and/or ethnicity.
The Vaidika Hindu notion of “Rashtra” (Nation) is based on the notion of “State Nation”.
In State Nation Theory:
(1) State is the Nation (but not the vice versa).
(2) State and Nation are not two different entities. They are to signify the same entity. Whereas ‘Nation’ signifies the cultural-social dimension, the ‘State’ is geo-political-legal entity. In sum, ‘Nation’ and ‘State’ become inseparable thereby giving rise to a ‘State Nation’ like Nepal, India, and so on.
(3) The State is the decisive factor to define ‘Nationality’. Nation (and Nationality) must not be defined on the basis of race, ethnicity, linguistic identity, religion, and so on. Nationality of person is defined on the basis of the citizenship of a particular State.
(4) There should be separation between “Civil and Political Rights” and “Cultural Rights” in order to guaranty both of them, on the one hand, and not to let the “Cultural Rights” dimension intervene in the process of administering the State, on the other hand. The administration of the State must be on the basis of the State responsibilities to protect each and every individual citizen that also includes protection of indigenous language, culture, religion and so on, both in local and national level.
The Euro-centric notion of “Nation State” and its extensions, namely “Two-Nation Theory” and “Pluri-nationalism” (or “Multi-nation State Theory”) are irrelevant for Nepal, India and the world too. Not to discard those concepts/theories as soon as possible is to let the theoretical foundation of hatred being continued.
As the very foundation of ‘Nation State’, ‘Two-Nation Theory’ and ‘Pluri-nationalism’ is based on the hatred generated by racism/ethno-centrism, the world will continue with problems of so called ‘Identity Politics’ until and unless those theories are abandoned thereby employing the theory of State Nation.

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