Readability of Editorials in Nepali Broadsheet Dailies

Readability of Editorials in Nepali Broadsheet Dailies
(A report of the research conducted under the Chautari Media Fellowship 2010)
– Nirmala Mani Adhikary
Dept. of Languages and Mass Communication, Kathmandu University

Acknowledgement:
The present research has been conducted under the Chautari Media Fellowship 2010. I would like to appreciate the Martin Chautari for providing the opportunity to conduct this research.

Abstract:
The present research studies the readability of editorials in Nepali broadsheet dailies published from Kathmandu. Of available methods for readability research, the Cloze procedure developed by Taylor (1953) has been employed here. In this course, it measures the readability scores of the texts under study, and also identifies the newspaper that the readers have considered publishing most readable editorials.

NOTE: The original report contains several figures. All the figures have been removed here.

Chapter I
Introduction

1.1. Background
There are wide areas of research in print media. As Wimmer and Dominick (2005) observe, newspaper and magazine researchers conduct six basic types of studies: readership, circulation, management, typography/makeup, readability, and online media use (p. 308). Of them, the present research is a readability study.
Readability research “can be conducted on any textual material to determine whether it is suitable for an intended audience” (Buddenbaum and Novak, 2005, p. 195). Readability has been defined as “the sum total of all the elements and their interactions that affect the success of a piece of printed material. Success is measured by the extent to which readers understand the piece, are able to read it at an optimal speed, and find it interesting” (Wimmer and Dominick, 2005, p. 319).
Readability research addresses the question: “How easy is it for readers to follow newspaper stories?” (Gunter, 2000, p. 73). For this, the textual elements that affect comprehension of a message are studied. “Readability studies are designed to draw inferences from writing style about whether people can understand the message” (Buddenbaum and Novak, 2005, p. 195).
The readers’ comprehension is a must for published contents to be useful to the people. It cannot be considered as information if it is not communicated to the audiences. Any text should ensure a higher level of readability to ensure that it is comprehensible and of some use to readers. In other words, any message becomes worthless if it is not readable. Editorials of the newspapers also should possess the quality of readability. Thus the readability of editorials is of concern to the researchers. In this background, it is pertinent to conduct readability studies on the editorials in Nepali newspapers too.
The present research has studied the readability of editorials in Nepali broadsheet dailies published from Kathmandu. Of available methods for readability research, the Cloze procedure developed by Taylor (1953) has been employed in this study, which has been considered “better predictor of evaluations than several other common readability tests” (Gunter, 2000, p. 74).
Here, first, it is aimed for measuring the readability scores of editorials in Nepali broadsheet dailies published from Kathmandu. Then, comparing the readability scores of the newspapers, it also seeks to identify the broadsheet daily that is publishing most readable editorials as considered by the readers.
1.2. Problem Statement
Readability is an important aspect of any printed content. It matters whether readers understand what newspapers are publishing or not. It also matters whether they find the text interesting and easy to read. Without higher level of readability, the message cannot be comprehend by the reader and thus become worthless to them. So it is pertinent to study the readability of newspapers to find out if they are really fulfilling the responsibility of disseminating information for the people. Due to the significance of editorials, newspapers should be publishing such editorials which are highly readable. No research has been conducted yet regarding the readability of editorials in Nepali newspapers. This research measures the readability of editorials in Nepali broadsheet dailies published from Kathmandu, and also compares the readability scores of different newspapers.

1.3. Objectives
The general and specific objectives of the present research are given below.
1.3.1. General Objective:
• To study the readability of editorials in Nepali broadsheet dailies published from Kathmandu
1.3.2. Specific Objectives:
• To find out the readability scores of editorials in Nepali broadsheet dailies published from Kathmandu
• To compare the readability scores of the newspapers in order to identify the newspaper publishing most readable editorials
1.4. Research Questions
This research has following research questions:
• How much readability scores do the editorials in Nepali broadsheet dailies published from Kathmandu get?
• Which newspaper among Nepali broadsheet dailies of Kathmandu publishes most readable editorials as considered by the readers?
1.5. Justification of the Study
The practice of journalism in Nepal has a history of more than a century. The first periodical from Nepal, Sudhasagar, a literary magazine, was published in the year 1898 AD. On Monday, 1901 May 6, Gorkhapatra weekly was published, which has been considered as foundation of Nepali journalism. In the course of time, Nepali journalism has progressed significantly. Journalism has already entered to a new era, where it is a profession rather than hobby or political mission. Moreover, journalism has become an industry in its own right.
The rise of journalism industry has been accompanied by academic endeavors. The study of journalism has been introduced to secondary school level education. The higher secondary education board offers courses on mass communication and journalism for grade XI and XII. Tribhuvan University, Purvanchal University and Kathmandu University are offering wide range of courses on journalism and allied sectors. Journalism has already been recognized as a discipline of knowledge (Kafle, 2007, 2009; Pant, 2009).
But the rise of mass media, both as profession/industry and discipline of knowledge, is not resulting in the development of the media research to same extent. Many areas of media research are still unexplored in Nepal. Readability research is not an exception. Though Nepali newspapers have been publishing editorials beginning with the first issue of Gorkhapatra no study has been conducted yet regarding the readability of newspaper editorials.
Nevertheless, readability of editorials is no such thing which is to be ignored like this. Readability studies of newspaper editorials can provide valuable information. Better readability is one of such factors which contribute for the success of newspapers. “Whether or not readers can understand what they are reading, find it interesting and are able to read it without feeling they are being required to make a lot of effort could make a difference to whether they will return to read that publication again” (Gunter, 2000, p. 73). Higher level of readability suggests that the printed message (for e.g., editorial) is of some use to readers, which newspapers often claim. Without readability, the message becomes worthless. Thus readability research is a vital area of research on newspapers.
It is in this background, the present research has been conducted. Of available methods for readability research, the Cloze procedure developed by Taylor (1953) has been employed here. This technique is chosen because it has been considered “better predictor of evaluations than several other common readability tests” (Gunter, 2000, p. 74) even though it is not without its critics (Chene, Violette, and Jackson, 2008, pp. 3-4). According to Chene, Violette, and Jackson (2008), despite the limitations of the concept of ‘readability’, a single readability score might provide a practical way to compare the texts to assess which texts readers will likely find to be more or less “attractive, interesting and comprehensible” (p. 3). As it has been observed, “precisely because readability depends on the interaction between a reader and the written text, many researchers have considered the cloze procedure to be superior to readability formulas for assessing the readability” (p. 4).
The present research contributes in exploring new avenue of media research in Nepal. Moreover, the research presents a basis for the assessment of the effectiveness of newspaper editorials in Nepal. The newspaper industry will be benefitted by the research because its finding will shed light to what extent readers are finding the editorials readable. It also provides a basis for further research on readability of Nepali print media.

Chapter II
Literature Review

2.1. The Methods
Readability of print media including newspapers has been concern of researchers. There have been efforts to develop techniques to study how comprehensible the printed message is likely to be found by the readers. To determine the readability of text, various techniques have been developed.
One of the best known formulas to determine readability is the Reading Ease Formula developed by Flesch (1948). This technique involves selecting systematically 100 words from the text, determining the total number of syllables in those words (wl), determining the average number of words per sentence (sl), and performing a calculation as following:
Reading ease = 206.835 – 0.846wl – 1.015sl
The score is compared to a chart providing a description of style.
Gunning (1952) presented Fog Index to measure readability. Here, researchers systematically select samples of 100 words each, determine the mean sentence length by dividing the number of words by the number of sentences, count the number of words with three or more syllables, add the mean sentence length to the number of words with three or more syllables, and multiply this sum by 0.4.
Taylor (1953) developed the Cloze procedure as a method for measuring readability. According to Chene, Violette, and Jackson (2008),
Development of the cloze procedure was based on the theory (developed in the literature on communication) that the amount of information a message contains can be described by how predictable it is. The cloze procedure measures the average predictability of the words in the passage; the lower the percentage of words correctly guessed, the harder the passage. (p. 3)
In this technique, the researcher chooses a passage of about 250-300 words, deletes every fifth word from a random starting point and replaces it with a blank. The researcher then gives the passage to subjects and asks them to fill the blanks with what they think are the correct words; he or she then counts the number of times the blanks are replaced with the correct words. The number of correct words or the percentage of correct replacement constitutes the readability score for that passage (Bormuth, 1967; Gunter, 2000; Wimmer and Dominick, 2005).
McLaughlin (1969) proposed a readability index named SMOG Grading (Simple Measure of Gobbledygook Grading). Here, the researcher selects 10 consecutive sentences near the beginning of the text, 10 from the middle, and 10 from the end, and then counts every word of three or more syllables and takes the square root of the total. The number thus obtained represents the reading grade that a person must have reached to understand the text.
2.2. Applications
Nestvold (1972) used the Cloze procedure to study readability. He found Cloze procedure scores highly correlated with readers’ own evaluations of content difficulty. He found that the Cloze procedure as a better predictor of evaluations.
Hoskins (1973) studied the readability levels of Associated Press and United Press International wire copy. He found that common readers did not easily comprehend the text. Thus, both services scored in the ‘difficult’ range.
Smith (1984) studied readability of different categories of newspaper content. He found that different contents have differences in readability. His research revealed that features and entertainment were more readable whereas national-international or state and local news were less readable.
Porter and Stephens (1989) conducted a readability research employing Flesch’s reading ease formula. They found that the hard news stories were written at an average 12th-grade level.
Bodle (1996) compared the readability levels of a sample of student newspapers with a sample of private-sector papers. He found that the private-sector dailies had a higher score than the student papers.
According to Aitken (1977), Cloze tests “have been used for a multitude of purposes” (p. 59). However, its use is not wide spread in the field of mass media research. As Wimmer and Dominick (2005) observe, only a few readability studies have been conducted in the field of media research (p. 308).
2.3. Local Context
In case of Nepal, mass media research is relatively new field. Though the history of media research has been traced to the first press commission of 1956 (Adhikary, 2006, p. 192; Humagain, Bhatta & Adhikary, 2007, p. 9) it is not a well developed field. In other words, the rise of mass media, both as profession/industry and discipline of knowledge, does not seem accelerating the growth of research to the same extent.
The effort on history writing of Nepali journalism and the audience surveys of Radio Nepal were initial research endeavors (Adhikary, 2006, p. 192). Since then, some research studies have been conducted and magazines, journals, and in-house publications publish some research articles but many aspects and approaches are still unexplored (Adhikary, 2006; Humagain, Bhatta & Adhikary, 2007). Both of the editorials and the readability studies are not the exceptions.
On the one hand, very few studies are found on editorials in Nepali newspapers (e.g. Adhikari, 2010; Adhikary, 2007; Jha, 2004), and some others have included editorials in the study corpus (e.g. Bishwakarma, 2006; Gautam, 2008; Ghale, 2007; Kshetri, 2008; Onta, 2002; Onta and Parajuli, 2058 B.S.; Parajuli, 2058 B.S.; Pokharel, Dahal and Sigdel, B.S. 2064). Of them, none studies the readability of the editorials.
On the other hand, though number of methods on readability studies is there it is still unexplored area in Nepal. Only one readability research of Nepali newspapers precedes the present research (Adhikary, 2010). Employing the Cloze procedure, the research studied the readability of the news contents published on the front pages of three issues of six Nepali broadsheet dailies (Annapurna Post, Gorkhapatra, Kantipur, Nagarik, Nepal Samacharpatra, and Rajdhani). According to the research, Nepali broadsheet dailies were found of fairly low readability score. Of them, the respondents considered the text of Gorkhapatra as the most readable followed by Kantipur, Annapurna Post and Nepal Samacharpatra, and the texts of both Nagarik and Rajdhani were considered the least readable ones.
As evident from above discussion, no research on readability of editorials in Nepali newspapers had been conducted earlier. This research is the first ever study to measure the readability of newspaper editorials in Nepal. It measures the readability scores of editorials in Nepali broadsheet dailies published from Kathmandu, and also seeks to identify the newspaper publishing most readable editorials as considered by the readers. It uses the Cloze procedure for measuring readability.
The present research, by initiating any study of such kind, contributes in exploring new avenue of media research in Nepal. And, it also provides a basis for further research on readability of Nepali newspapers. Moreover, its findings are useful for the journalists in general, and the editors in particular, since the research finds out to what extent the readers have been considering the editorials readable thereby serving as a basis for the improvements in the editorial writing.

Chapter III
Research Design

3.1. Methodology in Brief
3.1.1. Universe of the Study
The set of all relevant documents constitutes the universe of the study. The research problem itself specifies the boundaries of the body of content to be considered to define the universe. Thus, the contents of Nepali broadsheet dailies published in various issues within the specified time interval are included under the universe. Specifically, the universe of the study for this research has been defined as following:
“This study considers the editorials in six Nepali broadsheet dailies (Annapurna Post, Gorkhapatra, Kantipur, Nagarik, Nepal Samacharpatra and Rajdhani) published from Kathmandu within the first week of August, 2010.”
3.1.2. Data Collection Techniques
This research uses primary data. For data collection, the Cloze procedure has been used, which was developed by Taylor (1953). It involves providing selected passages (published texts) of about 250-300 words from newspapers, where every fifth word is deleted from a random starting point and replaced with a blank, to the subjects (respondents) and asking them to fill the blanks with what they think are the correct words. The researchers then count the frequency of occurrence of ‘correct replacement’ and ‘incorrect replacement’. Thus, quantitative data is provided for the study.

3.1.3. Sampling
This research employs multistage sampling as described below.
• First stage: This stage involves selecting the newspapers. Here, purposive sampling has been employed to ensure inclusion of mainstream broadsheet dailies. The six broadsheet dailies included in the sample are: Annapurna Post, Gorkhapatra, Kantipur, Nagarik, Nepal Samacharpatra, and Rajdhani.
• Second stage: This stage involves selecting the dates for identifying the issues of above mentioned newspapers to be studied. The particular dates selected are: August 1–7, 2010.
• Third stage: This stage involves selecting the particular text as required for the Cloze procedure. For this, the editorials in the various issues of the newspapers selected as mentioned above are considered. In case of two editorials in a single issue, the first one is to be selected for the study.
With the completion of the third stage, different passages, one each from editorials in each issue of above mentioned six newspapers within specified time period, are sampled for the readability test.
• Fourth stage: This stage involves selecting the subjects (respondents). For this, 240 respondents from Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, and Kavre districts have been selected employing non-probability sampling technique.
The distribution of the sample has been analyzed in terms of sex and mother-tongue. Of the respondents, 58% were male and 42% were female.
And, 83% of the respondents identified them of Nepali as mother-tongue (RN: Respondents of Nepali as Mother-tongue) and 17% identified them of other languages as mother-tongue (RO: Respondents of Other Languages as Mother-tongue).
3.1.4. Variables and Measures
This research involves only categorical variables. Such variables are made up of a set of attributes that form a category. The categorical variables for this study are: ‘correct replacement’ (i.e., the blank replaced with the correct word) and ‘incorrect replacement’ (i.e., the blank replaced with an incorrect word). Meanwhile, the frequency of the blanks not filled up at all is categorized under ‘can’t replace’.
It is to note that the categorical variables do not represent a numerical measure or scale themselves. However, there is scope for quantification if frequency of occurrence is counted. This research involves nominal level of measurement by counting the frequency of occurrence of the categories.
3.1.5. Techniques of Data Analysis
The present research is quantitative and it has been designed to use descriptive statistics for data analysis. As mentioned above, the data for this research comes from counting the frequencies of occurrences of the categorical variables. The data has nominal measurement, and it is susceptible to quantitative statistical analysis.
3.2. Limitations of the Study
Readability research incorporates various methods. As such, the readability of a text can be studied employing multiple methods simultaneously. But, it requires enormous amount of resources and efforts to study readability if various methods are employed and study corpus is made large. But, since the research was conducted within a limited time period and with limited resources, it was not feasible to consider a large corpus of study, to cover longer time period, and to employ various techniques of readability research. Hence, this was designed in such a way that it consisted of small study corpus, covered brief time period, and used one technique of readability study.
Particularly, the study has considered only the editorials published in six Nepali broadsheet dailies (Annapurna Post, Gorkhapatra, Kantipur, Nagarik, Nepal Samacharpatra, and Rajdhani) in the first week of August, 2010. Since these newspapers did not carry editorial on Saturday, August 7, editorials of August 1–6 are included under study except for Rajdhani, which was not available in the market on August 4. Thus, six editorials of Annapurna Post, Gorkhapatra, Kantipur, Nagarik, and Nepal Samacharpatra are considered, whereas only five editorials published in Rajdhani could be incorporated.
Of different available techniques for readability study, the present research has employed the Cloze procedure. As the Cloze procedure was developed and proposed in different language context, it may have some limitations while used for studying Nepali texts. However, it is yet to identify such limitations, if any. In this background, the research essentially becomes exploratory. As such, its findings are best suited for providing the basis for further research.
The duration of the research was about six months. The project was started in the fourth week of July, 2010 and completed in the third week of January, 2011.

Chapter IV
Presentation and Analysis of Data

The data presented in this section have come from counting the frequencies of occurrences of two categorical variables – correct replacement and incorrect replacement, and the blanks left without any replacement have been considered as ‘can’t replace’. Then, descriptive statistics (particularly, percentile) has been used for data analysis. Finally, the respective readability scores have been presented.
4.1. Readability of Newspapers among the Respondents in Aggregate Sample
4.1.1. Annapurna Post
The respondents replaced 27% of the blanks correctly, whereas 63% were replaced incorrectly and 10% were not replaced at all.
Thus, Annapurna Post has got readability score of 0.27.
4.1.2. Gorkhapatra
The respondents replaced 22% of the blanks correctly, whereas 64% were replaced incorrectly and 14% were not replaced at all.
Thus, Gorkhapatra has got readability score of 0.22.
4.1.3. Kantipur
The respondents replaced 26% of the blanks correctly, whereas 61% were replaced incorrectly and 13% were not replaced at all.
Thus, Kantipur has got readability score of 0.26.
4.1.4. Nagarik
The respondents replaced 26% of the blanks correctly, whereas 62% were replaced incorrectly and 12% were not replaced at all.
Thus, Nagarik has got readability score of 0.26.
4.1.5. Nepal Samacharpatra
The respondents replaced 25% of the blanks correctly, whereas 60% were replaced incorrectly and 15% were not replaced at all.
Thus, Nepal Samacharpatra has got readability score of 0.25.
4.1.6. Rajdhani
The respondents replaced 17% of the blanks correctly, whereas 60% were replaced incorrectly and 23% were not replaced at all.
Thus, Rajdhani has got readability score of 0.17.
4.2. Readability of Newspapers among Female and Male Respondents
The readability of different newspapers among female and male respondents has been presented below.
4.2.1. Readability of Newspapers among Female Respondents
4.2.1.1. Annapurna Post
The female respondents replaced 25% of the blanks correctly, whereas 62% were replaced incorrectly and 13% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among female respondents, readability score of Annapurna Post is 0.25.
4.2.1.2. Gorkhapatra
The female respondents replaced 21% of the blanks correctly, whereas 62% were replaced incorrectly and 17% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among female respondents, readability score of Gorkhapatra is 0.21.
4.2.1.3. Kantipur
The female respondents replaced 22% of the blanks correctly, whereas 65% were replaced incorrectly and 13% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among female respondents, readability score of Kantipur is 0.22.

4.2.1.4. Nagarik
The female respondents replaced 25% of the blanks correctly, whereas 63% were replaced incorrectly and 12% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among female respondents, readability score of Nagarik is 0.25.
4.2.1.5. Nepal Samacharpatra
The female respondents replaced 23% of the blanks correctly, whereas 62% were replaced incorrectly and 15% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among female respondents, readability score of Nepal Samacharpatra is 0.23.
4.2.1.6. Rajdhani
The female respondents replaced 16% of the blanks correctly, whereas 58% were replaced incorrectly and 26% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among female respondents, readability score of Rajdhani is 0.16.
4.2.2. Readability of Newspapers among Male Respondents
4.2.2.1. Annapurna Post
The male respondents replaced 29% of the blanks correctly, whereas 64% were replaced incorrectly and 7% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among male respondents, Annapurna Post has got readability score of 0.29.
4.2.2.2. Gorkhapatra
The male respondents replaced 23% of the blanks correctly, whereas 65% were replaced incorrectly and 12% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among male respondents, Gorkhapatra has got readability score of 0.23.
4.2.2.3. Kantipur
The male respondents replaced 29% of the blanks correctly, whereas 59% were replaced incorrectly and 12% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among male respondents, Kantipur has got readability score of 0.29.
4.2.2.4. Nagarik
The male respondents replaced 28% of the blanks correctly, whereas 60% were replaced incorrectly and 12% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among male respondents, Nagarik has got readability score of 0.28.
4.2.2.5. Nepal Samacharpatra
The male respondents replaced 26% of the blanks correctly, whereas 59% were replaced incorrectly and 15% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among male respondents, Nepal Samacharpatra has got readability of 0.26.
4.2.2.6. Rajdhani
The male respondents replaced 18% correctly, whereas 61% were replaced incorrectly and 21% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among male respondents, Rajdhani got readability score of 0.18.
4.3. Readability of Newspapers among RN and RO
The readability of different newspapers among RN (Respondents of Nepali as Mother-tongue) and RO (Respondents of Other Languages as Mother-tongue) has been presented below.
4.3.1. Readability of Newspapers among Respondents of Nepali as Mother-tongue
4.3.1.1. Annapurna Post
The RN replaced 27% of the blanks correctly, whereas 64% were replaced incorrectly and 9% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RN, readability score of Annapurna Post is 0.27.
4.3.1.2. Gorkhapatra
The RN replaced 23% of the blanks correctly, whereas 63% were replaced incorrectly and 14% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RN, readability score of Gorkhapatra is 0.23.
4.3.1.3. Kantipur
The RN replaced 27% of the blanks correctly, whereas 61% were replaced incorrectly and 12% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RN, readability score of Kantipur is 0.27.
4.3.1.4. Nagarik
The RN replaced 27% of the blanks correctly, whereas 62% were replaced incorrectly and 11% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RN, readability score of Nagarik is 0.27.
4.3.1.5. Nepal Samacharpatra
The RN replaced 25% of the blanks correctly, whereas 61% were replaced incorrectly and 14% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RN, readability score of Nepal Samacharpatra is 0.25.
4.3.1.6. Rajdhani
The RN replaced 18% of the blanks correctly, whereas 59% were replaced incorrectly and 23% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RN, readability score of Rajdhani is 0.18.
4.3.2. Readability of Newspapers among Respondents of Other Languages as Mother-tongue
4.3.2.1. Annapurna Post
The RO replaced 27% of the blanks correctly, whereas 60% were replaced incorrectly and 13% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RO also, readability score of Annapurna Post is 0.27.
4.3.2.2. Gorkhapatra
The RO replaced 19% of the blanks correctly, whereas 68% were replaced incorrectly and 13% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RO, readability score of Gorkhapatra is 0.19.
4.3.2.3. Kantipur
The RO replaced 22% of the blanks correctly, whereas 62% were replaced incorrectly and 16% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RO, readability score of Kantipur is 0.22.
4.3.2.4. Nagarik
The RO replaced 24% of the blanks correctly, whereas 57% were replaced incorrectly and 19% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RO, readability score of Nagarik is 0.24.
4.3.2.5. Nepal Samacharpatra
The RO replaced 23% of the blanks correctly, whereas 58% were replaced incorrectly and 19% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RO, readability score of Nepal Samacharpatra is 0.23.
4.3.2.6. Rajdhani
The RO replaced 15% of the blanks correctly, whereas 64% were replaced incorrectly and 21% were not replaced at all.
Thus, among RO, readability score of Rajdhani is 0.15.

4.4. Readability Scores of Newspapers Compared
The readability scores of editorials in Nepali broadsheet dailies are found fairly low, 0.27 being the highest score. This indicates that the readers have been finding the editorials in Nepali broadsheet dailies poorly readable.
The respondents, in aggregate, have considered the editorials in Annapurna Post as the most readable followed by Kantipur and Nagarik together, and then by Nepal Samacharpatra, and Gorkhapatra. The editorials in Rajdhani have been considered the least readable. It is to note that, in an earlier study (Adhikary, 2010), the respondents had considered the news stories of Gorkhapatra as the most readable followed by Kantipur, Annapurna Post and Nepal Samacharpatra, and the texts of both Nagarik and Rajdhani were considered the least readable.
The female respondents have considered the editorials in Annapurna Post and Nagarik as the most readable followed by Nepal Samacharpatra, Kantipur, Gorkhapatra, and Rajdhani respectively. Meanwhile, the male respondents have considered the editorials in Annapurna Post and Kantipur as the most readable followed by Nagarik, Nepal Samacharpatra, Gorkhapatra, and Rajdhani respectively.
The respondents of Nepali as mother-tongue (RN) have considered the editorials in Annapurna Post, Kantipur and Nagarik as the most readable followed by Nepal Samacharpatra, Gorkhapatra, and Rajdhani respectively. However, respondents of other languages as mother-tongue (RO) have considered the editorials in Annapurna Post as the most readable followed by Nagarik, Nepal Samacharpatra, Kantipur, Gorkhapatra, and Rajdhani respectively.
If the readability score of different newspapers in the present study is compared with that of earlier study (Adhikary, 2010), it is observed that, the editorials are found of less readability score than the news contents on the front pages (except for Nagarik, in which case the same score is found in both studies). This indicates the possibility of editorials being less readable than news stories published on the front pages. However, further studies are required before any generalization.
Chapter V
Findings
The present research has following major findings:
• The readability scores of editorials in Nepali broadsheet dailies are found fairly low.
• The respondents, in aggregate, have considered the editorials in Annapurna Post as the most readable followed by Kantipur and Nagarik together, and then by Nepal Samacharpatra, and Gorkhapatra. The editorials in Rajdhani have been considered the least readable.
• The female respondents have considered the editorials in Annapurna Post and Nagarik as the most readable followed by Nepal Samacharpatra, Kantipur, Gorkhapatra, and Rajdhani respectively.
• The male respondents have considered the editorials in Annapurna Post and Kantipur as the most readable followed by Nagarik, Nepal Samacharpatra, Gorkhapatra, and Rajdhani respectively.
• The respondents of Nepali as mother-tongue (RN) have considered the editorials in Annapurna Post, Kantipur and Nagarik as the most readable followed by Nepal Samacharpatra, Gorkhapatra, and Rajdhani respectively.
• The respondents of other languages as mother-tongue (RO) have considered the editorials in Annapurna Post as the most readable followed by Nagarik, Nepal Samacharpatra, Kantipur, Gorkhapatra, and Rajdhani respectively.
• When the readability score of different newspapers in the present study is compared with that of an earlier study, it is observed that, except for one newspaper, the editorials are found of less readability score than the news contents on the front pages.

References
Adhikari, H. (2010). Sampadakiya samkathan: Prayojan ra bichalan. Media Adhyayan, 5, 59-85.
Adhikary, N. M. (2006). Understanding mass media research. Kathmandu: Prashanti Pustak Bhandar.
Adhikary, N. M. (2007). Arthadoot saptahikka sampadakiyako ek adhyayan. Sanchar shodha ra media paryavekshan (pp. 55-70). Kathmandu: Prashanti Pustak Bhandar.
Adhikary, N. M. (2010). Readability of Nepali Broadsheet Dailies Published from Kathmandu. A readability research to be submitted to the University Grants Commission, Sanothimi, Bhaktapur.
Aitken, K. G. (1977). Using Cloze procedure as an overall language proficiency test. TESOL Quarterly, 11(1), 59-72.
Bishwakarma, JB. (2006). Dalit sawal ra Nepali chhapa sanchar madhyam. Media Adhyayan, 1, 115-142.
Bodle, J. V. (1996). Assessing news quality: A comparison between community and student daily newspapers. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 73(3), 672-686.
Bormuth, J. R. (1967). Cloze readability procedure. CSEIP Occasaional Report No. 1. Los Angeles: University of California.
Buddenbaum, J. M., and Novak, K. B. (2005). Applied communication research. Oxford: Blackwell.
Chene, D., Violette, G., and Jackson, S. (2008). Readability of auditing textbooks: An analysis using the Cloze procedure. Advances in Accountin, Finance and Economics, 1(1), 1-16.
Flesch, R. (1948). A new readability yardstick. Journal of Applied Psychology, 32(2), 221-233.
Gautam, B. (Ed.). (2008). Madhes vidrohako nalibeli. Kathmandu: Martin Chautari.
Ghale, K. (2007). Nepali press in madhesi and janjati movement. In K. Chapagain (Ed.), Press freedom: One year of loktantra (pp. 41-51). Kathmandu: Federation of Nepalese Journalists.
Gunning, R. (1952). The technique of clear writing. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gunter, B. (2000). Media research methods: Measuring audiences, reactions and impact. London: Sage.
Hoskins, R. (1973). A readability study of AP and UPI wire copy. Journalism Quarterly, 50(2), 360-362.
Humagain, D., Bhatta, K., and Adhikary, K. (2007). Media anusandhan: Prajnik purvadhar nirmanka kehi abhyas. Kathmandu: Martin Chautari.
Jha, T. N. (2004). Study of the trends of editorials in Nepali newspaper and analysis of its impact on policy (Unpublished M.A. Thesis). Purvanchal University.
Kafle, H. R. (2007). Media discourse: Evolution into academy. In N. M. Adhikary (Ed.), MBM anthology of media studies (pp. 17-27). Kathmandu: Communication Study Center.
Kafle, H. R. (2009). Media studies: Evolution and perspectives. Bodhi: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 3(1), 10-20.
Kshetri, A. (2008). Shanti prakriyama dainik patrikako bhumika. Media Adhyayan, 3, 131-156.
McLaughlin, H. (1969). SMOG grading: A new readability formula. Journal of Reading, 22(4), 639-646.
Nestvold, K. (1972). Cloze procedure correlation with perceived readability. Journalism Quarterly, 49(3), 592-594.
Onta, P. (Ed.). (2002). Kshetriya media: Vigat ra vartaman. Kathmandu: Martin Chautari.
Onta, P., and Parajuli, S. (Eds.). (2058 B.S.). Nepali mediama dalit tatha janajati. Kathmandu: Ekata Books.
Pant, L. D. (2009). Journalism and media education in Nepal: A critical overview. Bodhi: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 3(1), 21-34.
Parajuli, S. (2058 B.S.). Patrapatrikama janajati vishayavastu. In P. Onta, K. Yatru, and B. Gautam (Eds.), Chhapama janajati (pp. 303-307). Kathmandu: Ekata Books.
Pokharel, G., Dahal, T., and Sigdel, S. (Eds.). (B.S. 2064). Madhesh andolanma media. Kathmandu: Freedom Forum.
Porter, W. C., and Stephens, F. (1989). Estimating readability: A study of Utah editors’ abilities. Newspaper Research Journal, 10(2), 87-96.
Smith, R. (1984). How consistently do readability tests measure the difficulty of newswriting? Newspaper Research Journal, 5(4), 1-8.
Taylor, W. (1953). Cloze procedure: A new tool for measuring readability. Journalism Quarterly, 30(4), 415-433.
Wimmer, R. D., and Dominick, J. R. (2005). Mass media research: An introduction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s


%d bloggers like this: